EMERGING ARABIC POETIC REVOLUTION IN LAGOS STATE OF NIGERIA: TRENDS AND DIMENSIONS

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ABSTRACT

The 21st century brought in its wake several political and socio-economic challenges which provoked diverse responses from all sections of the Nigerian community. The response in Lagos State which arguably is the political and economic nerve centre of the Nation is as multi-dimensional as it is multi-sectoral. Its Arabic literary universe was ignited by the multiplicity of stimuli received from the political arena and several prose and poetic works flooded the market forthwith.

This paper is a preliminary report on the emerging Arabic poetic revolution that is taking place in the Lagos area of South Western Nigeria. It examines the factors responsible for the trend, the themes and styles of the new poetry, sources of influence and the promise it portends for Arabic scholarship in Yoruba land in the future.

INTRODUCTION

The history of the teaching and learning of Arabic language and its literature in South Western Nigeria(Yoruba Land) has followed mainly a monopodic pattern since the advent of Islam in the region.1 It is a fact of history that the language accompanied the religion of Islam to most of the new frontiers in the post-prophetic era.2 In the wave of conquests that began after the demise of Prophet Muhammad, the Arabs took their religion and with it, their language to different parts of the world. One of the most momentous of these waves swept through North Africa from where the religion spread to West Africa and its environs. The Northern part of Nigeria particularly benefited culturally and intellectually from these waves and the social universe of the entire region became enriched by the tenets of Islam.

The South Western states of Nigeria on the other hand benefitted from two waves that also emanated from North Africa-first the Wangara traders from Mali, and later, the Fulani jihadists from Northern Nigeria. These two waves entrenched the religion of Islam and the teaching and learning of Arabic language and its literature in the region several decades before the coming of the Colonial Administrators.

The amalgamation of the Northern and Southern Protectorates under Lord Lugard in 1914 brought the entire area christened Nigeria under one central control. Though the country had since then witnessed several reviews of its structure and form under successive administrations, Lagos State has remained strategic, politically, economically and culturally. Even after the movement of the seat of federal administration to Abuja, its socio-economic relevance has never been in doubt. It is bounded in the north and east by Ogun State, in the west by the Republic of Benin, and in the south by the Atlantic Ocean. The name Lagos is said to have been given to the area by the Portuguese explorers in 1482 because of its proximity to the sea.

Since it was the seat of colonial administration in West Africa, its significance politically and economically was enhanced. Its growth was therefore more rapid than other states of the Federation. It is reported that 65% of commercial activities in Nigeria takes place in Lagos and that every business concern must have a major station or at least a branch in the state. For administrative purposes, it is divided into five divisions namely, Ikeja, Badagry, Ikorodu, Lagos Island and Epe.

ARABIC AND ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN LAGOS STATE

The advent of Islam in Lagos dates back to the year 1775 C.E.9 It is reported that a certain Muslim cleric from the North whose name was Sulayman lived in Lagos at the time. Through his preaching activities, he was able to convert many people to Islam and he became their first Imam. It was also reported that Kosoko who later became the king of Lagos embraced Islam at his hand. The religion of Islam thus began to grow slowly until returnees from Sierra Leone, and Brazil who had become Muslims came to give the budding Muslim community of Lagos a boost.

These returnees later built mosques on the Lagos Island where traditional Quranic education took place and as the number of mosques grew, these Quranic center grew with them. It was however around the year 1890 C. E that one Abdul Karīm came to establish the first Arabic school in Lagos. He is said to have authored some works in Arabic Language and he had many pupils in Lagos as well as other parts of Yoruba land.

The establishment of Colonial Administration in Lagos in 1861 C. E brought a new dimension to Islamic Education. The authorities left the affairs of education in the hands of the missionaries and supported them with everything that could make their task easy for them. This facilitated the transmission of Christian ideals and culture to non-Christians in Lagos. Because of the opportunity that accompanied the appropriation of these ideals through the missionary schools, several Muslims were attracted to them.

Because of colonial administration’s patronage of missionary schools and its step-motherly aversion to the Quranic schools, Muslims in Lagos complained of this obvious injustice and when it persisted, they started withdrawing their children and wards from the missionary schools. This opened the door of dialogue between them and the Administration. This eventually resulted in the establishment of Government Muslim School on January 15, 1896 C.E and it was mainly for the teaching of Arabic and Islamic studies.

Muslims continued to strive to affirm their identity in the face of the imbalance that characterized government policies and with the arrival in Lagos of several scholars who were well versed in Arabic, standard Arabic schools with planned curricula sprang up in different parts of the state. Notable among these are Markaz Ta’līm al-‘Arabi of Shaykh Adam Abdullah al-Ilori at Agege, Dār al- Da’wah wal irshad of Shaykh Mustafa Zughlūl at Isolo, Ma’had Zumrat al- Adabiyyah al- Kamāliyyah of Shaykh Oniyangi at Orile and hundreds of other schools that run full programmes that cut through primary, junior secondary and senior secondary levels.

For several decades, these schools have continued to multiply, and their advent has altered tremendously the religio-social universe of the state. They have produced competent scholars of Arabic and Islamic studies who have authored valuable works in Arabic language on almost every subject that is common in their environment. The last two decades have particularly played host to an unprecedented avalanche of publications of Arabic works, in Lagos State.

ARABIC POETRY IN LAGOS

The socio-political climate in Lagos at the turn of the 21st century opened new vistas for Arabic scholars by confronting them with socio-cultural challenges that forced many of them to come to terms with issues of identity, self-esteem and social realism. The cultural imperialism occasioned by globalization and the breakthrough in information technology also jerked the verse-smiths among them into producing poetic works in large quantity and shifting from purely religious themes to social themes. Hitherto, their poems had focused on congratulatory and welcome themes on religious occasions, elegy on departed scholars, or traditional religious themes such as panegyric on Prophet Muhammad, admonitions and gnomic themes. Of the last few years, this proliferation of anthologies of poetry is particularly true.

For the purpose of this preliminary report, we shall limit ourselves to the published dawāwīn(anthologies) of Lagos based Arabic scholars only. The thousands of manuscripts that adorn individual libraries as well as those that are distributed at almost every Islamic occasion are not included in this inquiry. Because of their ever-increasing volume, they are better left for another assessment.

Several factors are responsible for this apparent increase in inclination towards Arabic poetry. These include the following:

Increase in number of standard Arabic schools
The quest for survival as well as zeal for da’wah has attracted a lot Arabic scholars to Lagos State in the last few decades.14 The influx into Lagos within the last two decades in particular has been unprecedented. These scholars often find nothing more attractive than the establishment of Arabic schools or prayer groups. An increase in Arabic schools is obviously an increase in access to the language and its literature. These schools have thus continued to produce more poets in recent times.

Reclaim of identity
Many Arabic scholars view the composition of poems as the ultimate proof of their versatility. They therefore dedicate more time to mastering the rudiments of Arabic prosody. Every special occasion is seen as opportunity by scholars to display their poetic prowess.

Emergence of Arabic Magazines
Many of the Arabic schools in Lagos have Arabic magazines and journals. While some of these have folded up, several others are waxing stronger. Prominent among the latter are mujallat al-nūr of Markaz nūr-al-Islam li ta’līm al arabi al Islāmi, Agege, mujallat al afkār of Dar al-irshād wal is’ād at Orile iganmu. Mujallat al ‘ūlum of Markaz al-‘ūlum, Alagbado, mujallat al-aqlām of Madrasat baqa al-islam, Itire, and mujallat al ashā’irah of madrasat nūn wal qalam, Badia. These magazines have served as platforms for the celebration of young poets. No edition has ever been published without a sizeable number of poems given pride of place therein.

Interpersonal, Inter-Madrasah, and Inter-Zawiyah Vendettas
The incidence of conflict in human social intercourse is a universal truth. Conflicts at the personal and communal levels have therefore nourished the creativity of poets in all lands and climes. In Lagos state, this is also very true. The conflicts between various groups, schools (madrasah), sufi circles (zāwiyah), as well as the personal disagreements between scholars have fuelled the poetic instinct. Poet laureates have therefore emerged for each camp to defend their particular school, creed or teacher.

Rivalry with University-Educated Arabic scholars
Another factor that has lubricated the wheel of Arabic poetry in Lagos State is the rivalry that exists between products of the standard Arabic schools {who see University education as a waste of time} and the University trained scholars. The former group is led by Muhammad al Misbāh Ibrahim al Zaytūni, the proprietor of Madrasat Nūn wal Qalam who is well known for his slogan ij’al ghurfatak jāmi’atak i.e make your room your university. Products of the Arabic schools who have had University education form the other camp and both camps engage in mutual poetic mud-slinging from time to time.

For the purpose of this preliminary investigation, it is necessary to divide the poets in Lagos State into three groups namely, the forerunners, the modern and the new poets. By the forerunners I mean those pioneers whose works span between thirty and fifty years, and whose themes consist only of the traditional themes. Towering above this category is the late Shaykh Adam Abdullah al Ilori , Shaykh Mustafa Zughlūl, and Shaykh Rabiu Adebayo Abdul Malik.

The moderns are those middle aged poets whose works date back to about thirty years ago and are still active in the poetic enterprise. Prominent among these are Muhammad Thaubān Ᾱdam Abdullah, Abdur Rahmān Abdul Aziz al-Zakawi, Abdul Wāhid Jum’ah Ariyibi, Muhammad al-Misbāh Ibrahim al Zaytūni, and Ahmad Rufai Sa’īd.

By the new poets, I mean those hundreds of young budding poets and poetesses who have ignited the literary horizon of Lagos state with eternal poetic messages. This study is about this group and the moderns. Though they are almost inexhaustible, we are concerned here with only those who have published their works.

THEMES AND STYLES OF LAGOS ARABIC POETS

The Lagos Arabic poets weave their thoughts into verse using the traditional Arabic metres. All of their works reflect the form and style of the neoclassical qasῑdah. The use of monorhyme, maintenance of artistic unity through the adoption of molecular structure as well as metrical fidelity is the main feature of their productions.

The themes of their works revolve round the traditional themes except that a great deal of social realism has brought lots of modifications into the ways some of these themes are treated. These themes include:

Al-Madḥ al Nabawī (Prophetic eulogy):

Exclusive prophetic panegyric is still not common among Lagos Arabic poets though many of their poetry often contain one or two lines in praise of Prophet Muhammad. However, there are among them those who have published works solely on panegyric of the Prophet. Among these are:

Abdul Rahmān al Zakāwi.

He is popularly known as shā’ir al markaz. He got this appellation when he was a student at Markaz ta’līm al arabi al Islāmi, Agege, Lagos. He later taught at the school before he left to start Markaz Ḍiyā’ al ‘ūlum al arabiyyah wa al thaqāfat al Islāmiyyah. Two of his works, al jumān fi madḥ rasūlillah al Mannān and Dāliyyat al Zakawi fi al maulid al nabawi are exclusively written in praise of the Prophet. He is known to have coined a poetic metre of his own the prosodic representation of which is fā’ilun fa’ūlun mafā’ilun fā’ilun

Abdul Fattah Babatunde Abdu Ra’ūf

He is a versatile young man who graduated from the Arabic / Education programme of the Lagos State University. His published works include khayr al maqāl fi madḥ al Rasūl, and waḥy al Islam ba’da alam al gharam.

Madḥ Ashkhās (Eulogy of Individuals)

This is by far the most common theme in the poetry of Lagos poets. Secondary themes like Tahāni, (congratulatory ode) Tarḥīb, (welcome songs) and Taḥiyyah, (salutation hymns) are all shades of madḥ. All of these poets without exception have eulogized their teachers, schools, mentors or benefactors. Muhammad Thauban Adam Abdullah dedicates a whole diwan to his father, Shaykh Ᾱdam Abdullah al Ilori titled Tahiyyat al Shaykh al Ilori. Al Zakāwi , Abdul Wahid Ariyibi, al Zaytūni, Mustafa Ya’qūb Aladewi and several others have also dedicated considerable space to eulogizing Shaykh al Ilori, Ahmad Rufai Sa’īd also dedicates a diwān in praise of his teacher, Shaykh Mustafa Zughlūl titled alfiyyat ibn Sa’id fī madh al shaykh al farīd Mustafa Zughlūl.

Similarly, Abdul Fattah Abdul Ra’ūf dedicates a diwān to his teacher and his Alma Mata titled nibrat al ihsās fi madh markaz al ‘ūlum wa al Shaykh Abbās.

Al-Hikam wa al Wasāyā (Wisdom and Admonition)

This theme is perhaps the second most common poetic theme among Lagos poets. Every published diwan contains poems with gnomic significance. This is perhaps because most of the poets are actively involved in Da’wah activities in addition to being verse-smiths. Their poems therefore engender words of wisdom and admonitions. Examples abound in their dawawin. For example, Mustafa Ya’qub al-Aladewi in his fi Ẓilāl al khayāl dedicates eleven poems to this theme alone. Abdul Latif Sa’īd Olawunmi dedicates nine poems to it in his Qaṭarāt al khāṭir, while Muhammad Thauban Adam Abdullah al Ilori has published five different dawawin on this theme. Akin to that is Abdul Latif Firdaus al Laghusi’s Ash’ār al Hikam.

Rithā’( Elegy)
This is one of the traditional themes of poetry and there is no single diwan published in Lagos that does not contain at least five elegiac poems. Departed scholars and spiritual preceptors are generally celebrated in verse and Lagos poets fare very well in this enterprise.

Ash-Shakāwā (Lamentations)
One important theme that is receiving increasing patronage is (shakāwā) (lamentations). The political situation in Nigeria and the seemingly irredeemable corruption of public office holders have prompted many of the Lagos poets to respond poetically. The lamentations range from complaints about the plight of the people to complaints about the plight of Muslims and the state of Arabic and Islamic education. Examples of these include Naijiriya fi khamsīn by Abdur Rahman Abdul Aziz Az Zakawi of Markaz Diya al ‘Ulum wa al Thaqafat al Islamiyyah, ‘Afā’ī al gharb aw gharb al-‘Afā’ī by Abdul Wahhab Abdus Salam al Igbajawi of Manhal al ‘Ulum al ‘arabiyyah wal Islamiyyah, Ajangbadi, Lagos; Naijiriya, safinatuha ila aina? By Yusuf Muhammad Salih Arowobola of Dar al Ta’lim wal Da’wah, Badia, Lagos, and Limādhā al adhā fi Naijiriya? By Mustafa Sa’id Olawunmi of Dar al Irshād wal Is’ād, Orile, Lagos.

Waṣf (Description)
Lagos poets have not contributed significantly to the wasf genre in its true traditional connotation. Neither description of nature and its various gifts nor description of scenes is found in their poetry. However, scanty descriptions of impression, encounters or process are seen here and there. The closest example of wasf that can be found is Abdul Wahid Ariyibi’s description of the effects and benefits of Global System of Mobile Communication(GSM) in his qasidah, al hātif al jawwāl. Similar to this is Munῑr al Din Al Riyādῑ’s artistic description of how to use the prophetic medicines to cure ailments in his didactic poem, Tadāwaw alā daw’ al kitāb wa al Sunnah.

Fakhr (Self Praise)
This is another theme which is not commonly patronized by Lagos poets. What may perhaps be responsible for this is the fear of censure because most of them are also teachers of religion and pride is a blameworthy trait in religious circles. It is however true that some of the lines of their poems on other themes reflect a subtle leaning towards it. One poet who has come out openly to sing poems of fakhr is Mustafa Ya’qub al-Aladewi in his Fi Ẓilāl al khayāl. He titles one of the poems inni al yawm akbar shā’ir.

Hijā( Invective)
The use of invectives in poetry is not as common in published works as other themes of poetry among Lagos poets. We aware of hija in various manuscripts that are sometimes distributed at functions or accidentally stumbled upon during interpersonal encounters, but we do not know as at the time of this study of any published work solely dedicated to hija. Most of those who have attempted it have clothed their intention in innuendoes probably to avert legal action. The closest example of hija in print is Muhammad Thaubān Adam Abdullah al Ilori’s sharar al zand fi tahdhῑr al Akh al waghd in which he rebukes his brother, Shaykh Habib Adam Abdullah al Ilori.

Naqā’id (Mutual Poetic Onslaught)
Though poetic conflicts are not very common yet, but the rate at which prosaic warfare has been raging shows that soon enough, poetry will soon be employed on a large scale as prose. A very recent indicator is Abdul Bāsit Mashhud Ramadan’s ‘Urd al qasā’id fi al radd ala al Qalā’id with which he responded to Abdul Wahid Ariyibi’s invectives against his father, Shaykh Mashhud Ramadan Jubril in his diwan, al Qalā’id.

Apart from these, there are sub-themes which we cannot yet see as independent themes because they are still being employed in lone instances. One of such is Abdur Rahman Al Zakawi’s poems on technology which he calls taknulujiyyāt.

DAWᾹWĪN (ANTHOLOGIES) OF SELECTED LAGOS POETS

The volume of poetic anthologies published in Lagos is not known. But it is known that every week at least one diwan is published in one of the Arabic printing outfits in Lagos. Below is a random selection of dawāwīn of some Lagos poets:

  • Nail al Falāh fi Mubādarat al nikāh; Muhammad Thaubān Adam Abdullah al ilori;2011
    Diwān Shukrān; Thaubān Adam Abdullah al ilori; 2010
  • “An-nafahāt ar-Rahmāniyyah fi al anāshiid al-ramadāniyyah” by Muhammad Thaubān bin Adam Abdullahi al-Ilori, 2010
  • Tahiyyat al Shaykh al Ilori; by Muhammad Thaubān Adam Abdullah al ilori;2008
  • Ya Safīr al-Din by Abdul Wahid Jum’ah Ariyibi 2003
  • Al- Qalā’id by ‘Abdul Wahid Jum’ah Ariyibi 2008
  • Al –Aswirah by Mustafa Ya’qub Al-Aladewiy 2009
  • Fi Ẓilal al khayal;Mustafa Ya’qub al Aladewi;2011
  • Al Bustān; Mustafa Ya’qub al Aladewi,2008
  • ‘Diwān’ al-Allamah Adam Abdullahi Al-Ilori, by Muhammad Thaubān Adam Abdullah al ilori 2010
  • Ma’a Ramaḍān Tibi Yaa Naijiriya by Sharif al Din ibn Suraqah Shittu 2011
  • Shakwa-al-Dā’iyah wa dhikr al-Hijrah al ‘uzma, Abdul Wahid Jum’ah Ariyibi 1997
  • Alfiyyah ibn Sa’īd by Ahmad Sa’id Al-Rifa’i 1992
  • Zād al-Du’āt by ‘Abdul Wahhab Abdus Salam Al-igbajawiy 2008
  • Afīkū Ma’shar al Qur’ān by ‘Abdul-Rahman ‘Abdul ‘Aziz al-Zakawiy 2006
  • Suba’iyyat fī shakhsiyyah-Al-Shaykh Muhammad Sa’īd Olawunmi by Qasim ibn ‘Abdul Karim 2010
  • ‘Tadawau’ ‘ala dau’-al- kitab wa al sunnah by Munir ud-Din Ar-Riyadi Salah-ud-Din 2005
  • Hāwiyat-al-khaljāt by Mustapha Sa’id Olawunmi, 2005
  • Al Mir’āt; Hibatullah Ismail Abdullah Miqdād;2010
  • Aqlām by ‘Usrah al Dirāyah , 2010
  • Natā’ij al afkār fi waqā’i al azminah; by Ibrahim Abdul ‘Azeez ’Afami’;2012
  • Naijiriya fi khamsīn; by Abdur Rahman Abdul ‘Aziz al Zakāwi; 2010
  • Hadhā min fadl Rabbī; by Sharif al Din Surāqah;2009
  • Al nafhān; by Abdul Rahmān Abdul ‘Aziz al Zakawiy;2009
  • Ash’ar al hikam; Abdul Latif Firdaus al Laghusi;1979
  • Al natā’ij al Fikriyyah; Ibrahim Khalil Abdul Razaq;2008
  • Qatrāt al khātir; Abdul Latif Sa’īd Olawunmi; 2004
  • ‘Afā’ī al gharb aw gharb al ‘Afā’ī, Abdul Wahhāb Abdul Salam al Igbajawi;2002.
  • Naijiriya safīnatuhā ila ain?; Yusuf Muhammad Sālih Jami’. n.d
  • Diwān al hadiqat al ghanna’; Hāmid Mahmud Ibrahim al Hajri;2010
  • Ard Sūdān; Abu Fawwāz Mustafa Sa’id Olawunmi; 2011
  • Ᾱthār Shaykh Ibrahim Sa’id Ibrahim Olawunmi ; Al Fawj al ‘ishrūni bi Dar al ‘Irshād wal Is’ād, 2010
  • Al ‘iqd al farīd; by Abdul Wahhab Abdul Salam al Igbajawi,2008
  • Al I’tirāf bil jamīl; Da’ud ‘Abdul ‘Azeez;2005
  • Al-Jīmiyyah al -Thaubāniyyah , Muhammad Thaubān bin Adam Al-Ilori, 2009
  • Durrat al khiṣāl fi anāshīd al jamāl; Muhammad Thauban Adam Abdullah al ilori; 2005.
  • Sharar al zand fi tahdhir al Akh al waghd, Muhammad Thauban Adam Abdullah al Ilori, 2001.
SELECTIONS FROM THE WORKS OF THE LAGOS POETS

Abdul Basit Mashhud Ramadan castigates Abdul Wahid Jum’ah Ariyibi thus:

أريبي لين القول الشديدا
وعلم نفسك القول السديدا
ودربها على قول الياخى
وفعل الود نثرا أو قصي
فقل خيرا أواصمت يا أريبى
ولا تذكر لناالأمر الطريدا
زن الأفكاروزنك للقوافي
تعش حرا بشعرك أو سعيدا
ولا تجعل لسان الشعر حربا
فشعر الحرب لا يدني البعيدا

Translation
O Ariyibi, soften your harsh diction;
And teach yourself the noble speech.
Accustom it to brotherly utterances,
And actions of love, be it in prose or poetry.
Utter what is good or keep quiet O Ariyibi,
And reopen not forgotten issues.
Assess your thoughts as you measure your poetic metre,
You will live a life of freedom or fortune.
Employ not poetic devices as a means of warfare,
Poetic war does not foster cooperation.

Abdul Wahid Jum’ah Ariyibi describes the GSM phone:

عطاء العلوم عطـــاء ندر بكل القياس وكل العبـــــــــــر
فقرب مابين شــــــرق لنا وغرب فتم سرور بهـــــــــــر
بهاتف صوت وجـــــواله فكان كجان يسر الخبـــــــــــر
وكان بمعزفه كاللعـــــــب وكان بمهنته كالـــــــــــــدرر
أليف الجيوب سجين القلوب وحارس ما بينـــــــنا من أطر
حبيب العيون حليف اليـدين ولوكان في الحل أو في السفر

Translation
The gift of science is indeed rare;
By all standards and consideration,
It closes the gap between the east and the west for us;
And our joy knows no bound,
With the mobile telephone device,
Like the Jinn that whisper secret messages.
With its ring tone, it is like fun,
And like pearls in its functions,
Friend to pockets locked in the hearts.
Guard to what we conceal among ourselves,
Beloved to the eyes, friendly to the hand,
Be it at home or on a journey.

CONCLUSION
From the above, it is obvious that the Arabic literary climate in Lagos is very vibrant and resilient. More and more scholars are catching the bug of poetry. Prose which had been the forte of Lagos scholars is now sharing attention with poetry. Literary clubs, though still in the embryonic stage, are already being formed by students of Arabic solely for poetic practice. More and more students are trying to write not only poetry, but also short stories. With the rate at which Arabic schools are being established in Lagos and the zeal with which people are responding, other genres of Arabic literature will be developed in full and spread to other parts of the South West. It is hoped that researchers will begin to assemble the literary productions of Arabic scholars in the other states of the South West so that in the very near future, with these efforts well documented, our Arabic curriculum will proudly field ’Yoruba Arabic Literature.’

NOTES

  • M.O Abd Rahman: Nazrat tarkhiyyah fi tatawwur ta ‘lim al lughah al arabiyyah wa al dirasat al islamiyyah fi wilayat uyu sabiqah , in A.O Sanni[eds], An unfamiliar guest in a familiar household[2003] p 188.
  • A.W.A Wafi: fIqh al lughah, Dar Walidat Misr li al tiba’ah wa al nashr, Cairo [1962] p 103
    M.O Abdur Rahman: op cit, p 188
  • Adam Abdullah al ilori, Agege , 1967 , p10-22.
  • Ahmad Galadanci:Harakat al-lughah al arabiyyah wa adabiha fi naijiriya, 1804-1966, dar al maarif, Cairo p29.
  • Adam Abdullah al ilori, Nasim al saba fi akhbar alislam wa ulama bilad Yoruba Matba’at al thaqaf alislamiyyah Cairo[1986]p207
  • Ibid, p197.
  • N.O Onibon, Darisu al-lughah al arabiyyah fi wilayat lagos baina al-waqi’ wa al-wahm in Journal of the Jordan Academy of Arabic 2010, p 130.
  • Ibid p130
  • Ibid p131
  • Adam Abdullah al ilori, op cit p209
  • K.O Amuni, Tadris al-lughat al-arabiyyah fi wilayat lagos, unpublished long essay submitted to the Lagos State University for the award of B.A Arabic, [1990] p 10.
  • W.O.A Nasiru, Reactions of Lagos State Muslims to the challenges posed by the Christians Sponsored Education. Al Fikr, December 1987, no8, p14
  • M.M Al Zaytuni, Mashakil al-Ta’linm al –‘arabi fi bilad Yoruba, shirakat Dar al Nur li al-TIba’ah wa al-nashr,llagos’2003,p113.
  • Each school has given the title of Sha’ir so and so, to its poet laureate. For example, Abdur Rahman Az-Zakawi is called Sha’ir al Markaz , Mustafa Yaqub al-Aladewi is called Sha’ir Dar irshad wal is’ad e.t.c.
  • The madh themes appears to be a generic theme for themes like Tahani, Tarhib and tahiyyah because these are also forms of eulogy re-defined by peculiar situations.
  • Abdul Basit Mashhud.R, “Urd al- Qasa’id fi al radd ala al Qala’id diwan Abdul Wahid,
  • Maktabah Allah Nur, Lagos,[2009, p21
  • Abdul Wahid Ariyibi, ‘ Ya Safir al-din, Agage, [2005]p9
  • Abdur Rahman A-Az-Zakawi, Naijiriya fi khamsin Markaz Diya al- ‘Ulum al- Arabiyyah wa al- Thaqafah al- Islamiyyah Lagos, [2010]p1.
  • Abdul Wahhab Abdus Salam, ‘Al-‘iqd al- Farid, WAAS press,Lagos, 2011[ p3
  • Mustafa Yaqub.A, ‘Fi dhilal al- khayal AHMSEG oncepts, Lagos [2011], p139
  • Abdul Fattah Abdur Rauf, ‘Khayr al- Maqul fi Madh al rasul, Matba’ah al- Ma’rufah lil Tiba’ah, [2010]p7
  • Muhammad Thauban, A A, ‘ Min Diwan tahiyyat al Shaykh al ilori, Markaz al-“ulum , Lagos [2008]p8

4 COMMENTS

  1. It was indeed worth reading. It brings a urge of learning Arabic language into me, I wish I could actualise it.. Thank you sir.

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